In the wake of concerns about weight consciousness and related health issues, an increasing number of people around the world are beginning to heed the advice of nutritionists and other health experts, to reduce sugar intake. This comes against the background of global increase in the number of people with diabetes. For most people who do not have diabetes, but still want to give consumption of sugar are increasingly turning to sugar substitutes, also known as sweeteners.
A recent study found that between 2002 and 2018, purchases of packaged food products containing sucralose (a sugar substitute) jumped from 39 to 71 per cent. The sales of products containing rebaudioside A, a newer type of sweetener, increased from 0.1 per cent in 2002 to 26 per cent in 2018.
Notwithstanding this development, not all sugar substitutes saw higher volume of use. In 2002, 60 per cent of households chose products containing aspartame compared to 49 per cent by 2018, indicating a fall in demand. Similarly, the use of the once popular sweetener, saccharin, has also declined as it has alleged to be a carcinogen.
“Some of the messaging from public health folks, doctors and other health care professionals about the need to limit the consumption of sugar and the deleterious effects of sugar may be getting through,” said study co-author Shu Wen Ng, who is an associate professor of nutrition at the Gillings School of Global Public Health at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, United States of America.
But the science isn’t clear on whether sugar substitutes are a healthful choice. There are a number of different choices, and Ng noted each one has different impacts in the body.
“The message needs to evolve from reducing sugar to reducing sweetness exposure,” she said. “Sugar and other foods that may be sweet may be reinforcing a sweetness preference, especially when you’re young and still developing your sweetness preferences.”
Samantha Heller, a nutritionist at New York University Langone Health in New York City, explained that when people get used to eating sweet, processed foods, natural ones like a ripe summer peachmight not taste sweet enough anymore.
“Studies haven’t provided concrete answers yet about the safety of sugar substitutes, or whether they help with weight loss or increase food and sweet cravings,” she said. “Since there are so many questions still, and we haven’t yet been able to find the answers, I generally tell patients to avoid them, although there are some instances where they can be helpful.”
The Calorie Control Council, an industry group, issued a statement in response to the findings. It said low- and no-calorie sweeteners “are safe and among the most studied ingredients in the world.” Those in the marketplace today are considered safe by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and other regulatory authorities around the world, the statement said.
The group’s medical advisor, Dr. Keri Peterson, added that reducing added sugars is an important message to relay to patients.
“Low-calorie sweeteners can serve an important role in diabetes management,” Peterson said. “Substituting sugars with low-calorie sweeteners gives diabetics more flexibility in their diets, allowing them to enjoy sweet foods without affecting blood sugar.”
The new study reviewed annual survey data on household food purchases. The 2002 survey included data from almost 40,000 U.S. households; the 2018 data included more than 61,000.
The study found a slight decline in the number of households purchasing products with a caloric sweetener (like sugar, corn syrup or honey). The biggest reduction was in purchase of sweetened beverages.
Compared to Hispanic and Black people, white people bought almost twice the number of products containing sugar substitutes. Black people purchased 42 per cent more beverages with caloric sweeteners or sugar substitutes between 2002 and 2018, the study found.
Both Ng and Heller said it isn’t always obvious that products contain sugar substitutes. “People trying to reduce their sugar intake may be drawn to products labeled as ‘sugar-free, low calorie or natural,’ not realizing that these products contain non-nutritive sweeteners,” Ng said.
She recommended that people strive to be aware of what they’re eating or drinking, and aim to reduce sweetness overall — both from sugar and sugar substitutes. Ng also suggested consumers push manufacturers for clearer labeling.
“Consumers should be informed and aware,” Ng said. “Products should say on the front whether they contain a non-nutritive sweetener or an actual sweetener.”
No matter the intensity of the debate over artificial sweeteners, Joseph Ibezim, a senior marketing executive based in Lagos, is resolute about his preference for soft drinks made with combinations of sugar and aspartame: “Doctors and nutritionists keep adding to the long list of things that people in our times should not eat because of the perceived adverse health implications. Now even if you eat pounded yam and original egusi soup with orishirishi meat, they will tell you that it is bad for the heart, because the egusi will increase cholesterol level. So, what do they want us to eat? Anyway, I like to take soft drinks that contain non-sugar sweeteners, so I just won’t bother myself about all these research reports. Keeping track of these research findings is enough to give a person hypertension.”
• Adapted from medicinenet.com